Channel-Wrap® is a wraparound sleeve that, depending on your environment, can be manufactured from a multitude of materials and offers a variety of different kinds of closure options. The advantage of utilizing this sleeve is having the ability to wrap the sleeve around a robotic arm, a post, a railing, or any other component, and then route cables, wires, or hoses through the channels built into the closure portion of the sleeve.


ClassicWrap™ is our new jacketing-and-track cable management solution that is designed to meet any cable management requirement. The 63-20 jacketing is highly durable and effortlessly flexible and can be utilized in a variety of environments and conditions. The PVC film jacket is military-grade and RoHS compliant and meets MIL-I-631D, Type F, Form S, Class I. The jacketing is equipped with an overlap of the material inside the tube so you can easily tuck your wires within the cable management system and close the track more easily. Also, this jacketing is fire-resistant, fungus-resistant, water-resistant, and UV stabilized, and it has excellent corrosion-resistance properties. With a 700-volt dielectric rating and an operational temperature range of -4°F to 221°F, 63-20 is one of Zippertubing’s most versatile jacketing options.

The Z-Track (PVC) is a universal and secure closure. This arrowhead-and-channel interlock design is a first choice due to its polyvinylchloride compound, as well as its flame-retardant and fluid-resistant properties. The Z-Track uses the ZTZ-SP plier (sold separately) for a quick closure.

ClassicWrap™ is the ideal cable management solution for industries such as the automotive industry due to being fire-resistant, water-resistant, corrosion-resistant, and having an operational temperature range up to 221°F. This cable management solution is a better alternative to electrical tape because of its flexible jacketing and secure track closure, and the ability to easily access tubing or wires if needed.

Because we can mass-produce the ClassicWrap™ in our high-production department, we are able to offer set lengths and diameters for this high-value solution at a low cost. If you require specific diameters, jacketing, or closures, Zip-On® is our highly customizable cable management solution with hundreds of thousands of variations. There is sure to be one unique combination perfect for your application.


Connector Cover™ while available in many different shape options including hexagonal and rectangular, many of these products are available in five standard trapezoidal shapes. They are intended to minimize dirt and fluid exposure on critical interconnect components. This product is a .020" thick high-temperature PVC jacket material that meets Mil-I-631D, Type F, Form S, Grade C, Class 1 and incorporates an easy to use R-Track® thumb-pressure closure.

When used in conjunction with Zippertubing's Zip-On® (63) cable jacketing they can create a fully enclosed cable jacket assembly. The covers have good fluid resistance properties and offer a wide variety of temperature ranges.


Flex-Shield™ (HP) is a high-flexing, EMI shielding sleeve. Flex-Shield™ (HP) is made of two-ply twisted meta-aramid (Nomex) threads that have tin-plated copper foil strips helically wound around each thread, then braided together to create the expandable tubular sleeve. Flex-Shield™ (HP) is extremely flexible yet thin, with a material thickness of only 0.025”. Because it can expand and shrink considerably, Flex-Shield™ (HP) can work on applications that fluctuate in sizing. The expandable sleeve has a wide temperature range of -40°F to 302°F (-40°C to 150°C) and is RoHS compliant, fluid resistant, and UL-rated for flammability with meeting UL1441, VW-1. In addition, if the application requires, Flex-Shield™ (HP) can be equipped with a woven-in braided wire for grounding needs.

Flex-Shield™ (HP) is currently being utilized for a variety of aerospace applications. Due to its lightweight and non-metallic core material, Flex-Shield™ (HP) is the “Ace for Space,” providing EMI shielding and a durable barrier between components and environmental conditions. Flex-Shield™ (HP) is available in sizes ranging from 0.125” to 1.5” in diameter, with custom sizing available upon request.


The HeatReflect® family of products are high-temperature, fiberglass-reinforced, heat-reflective tapes. These tapes provide excellent thermal protection indoors or outdoors without the need to disconnect your components for installation.

HeatReflect® is available in two different styles. You can choose between a medium-weight material (ALP-500) which is great for larger applications or a light-weight material (ALS-5) which is much more flexible. Both styles of HeatReflect® tape are fiberglass-reinforced with an aluminum foil surface on one side and rated for 149°C (300°F) maximum operating temperatures.

The adhesive of these products features an acrylic, high-temperature, clear adheisve that provides a secure method of applying this tape to many different types of applications.


Heat-Wrap® is a wrap-around heat-shielding solution for components that need protection and a barrier from high temperature damage and abrasion. Heat-Wrap® is available in two heat-shielding jackets - ALS-5 and ALP-500. The ALS-5 jacketing is made of a lightweigt woven glass fiber and is ideal for smaller diameters, while the ALP-500 jacketing is made of a rigid, 0.016" thick polymer-coated fiberglass fabric and ideal for larger diameters. Both jackets have one side of reflective aluminum.

Heat-Wrap® has a high-temperature, acrylic adhesive closure that has a high bond strength. Additionally, the adhesive has a paper release liner for clean and easy application. The operational temperature range for both jacketing options are -58°F to 300°F (-50°C to 150°C).


The Hook-It® line of products offered by Zippertubing® is a hook-and-loop closure system that is heat-sealed or sewn to a protective jacket made from an extruded film or coated fabric. The Hook-It® family of products offers the easiest closure system available from Zippertubing®. They are field installable and can be easily re-entered when necessary.

Hook-It® has no tool required for install or re-entry, making it useful in hard-to-reach or frequently accessed areas. The hook-and-loop closure is available in different materials such as Nylon, Polyester, and Aramid. Although primarily designed for light-duty cable applications, the variety of different jacket material options allow the Hook-It® solution to prove itself useful in almost any industry or application.


The Hook-N-Shield® family of products are an EMI/RFI shielding, toolless, field-installable, re-enterable jacketing system that is perfect for any installation where frequent accessibility is required.

Utilizing a hook-and-loop closure, these convenient, easy-to-use products provide you a simpler way to protect and shield your wires or cables.

Hook-N-Shield® is available in a variety of hook-and-loop closure options, as well as various diameters, jacketing materials, and shielding alternatives.


Insuflect® composite heat shielding extends the survivability of sensitive components in a world of ever increasing temperatures. Zippertubing® is a leading manufacturer of thermal protection sleeves and Jackets that provide a heat barrier designed to protect wiring, hoses, pipes or a variety of other components from radiant heat sources. We have the ability to produce custom shapes using a variety of heat reflective materials.


Link-N-Shrink® is an adhesive lined wraparound heat shrink repair and sealing system that can cover cable diameters as large as 7.75”. Utilizing a stainless-steel locking channel and a 3:1 shrink ratio, Link-N-Shrink® will provide a watertight seal that will securely repair or extend the life of cables and/or cable joints. Link-N-Shrink® is RoHS compliant, ISO 846 tested for Microbial Testing of Plastics, ISO R527 tested for Tensile Properties, ASTM D2671 tested for Standard Heat-Shrink Tubing, DIN53455 tested for Plastic Tensile Testing, and can cover cables rated for 1kV.

The cross-linked polyolefin copolymer jacketing is fungus resistant, fluid resistant, and corrosion resistant, creating a durable solution for cabling in the toughest of environments. From shipboards to industrial construction and automation, Link-N-Shrink® is the heat shrink solution for a variety of applications. Link-N-Shrink® is a semi-rigid, watertight system that won’t budge from the cable it is applied to. The stainless-steel locking channel, paired with the inner water-resistant adhesive lining, ensures a tight and secure repair for cables as small as 1.69” to cables as large as 7.75”.

The quick and clean application procedure requires only a flame torch to complete. Simply wrap Link-N-Shrink® around the cable or cable joint, insert the steel channel, and heat around the jacketing, center to ends. The sleeve will shrink around and the sealant will flow circumferentially, creating a permanent watertight seal. The stainless-steel channel can be left on or removed, depending on preference or application.

Link-N-Shrink® offers an array of sizes for cable diameters from 1.69” to 7.75” and an operational temperature range of -31°F to 212°F (-35°C to 100°C).


PRT® is a wrap-around, heat-shrinkable tubing that provides a means of adding additional insulation to an assembled wire or cable. PRT® can be used to protect in-service electrical systems without the need to remove or disassemble the associated connectors and end hardware. This product is also a great in-service repair tubing where a side-entry installation is required.

A heat gun is used to recover the material in a fashion similar to standard, non-split, heat-shrinkable tubing. This material has an operational temperature range of -55° to 135°C (-67° to 275°F).


Bundle and pull through bundles of electrical, network, or fiber-optic wires with Zippertubing’s Quick-Feed® pull-through sleeve.

Do you have electrical, network, or fiber-optic wires that you’re trying to run through a piece of conduit or through an area that requires the wires to be bundled together, routed, and pulled through?

Zippertubing’s Quick-Feed® pull-through sleeve will allow you to navigate conduits or similar areas by gathering together, securing, and protecting your cable or wire bundles, providing a lasting, cost-effective solution.

Our Quick-Feed® is manufactured with durable polypropylene webbing, sewn together with nylon thread in various color options. The integrated handle allows you to hook onto the bundle and traverse your cable routing system by hand, connecting rod, or other method.

Our only consumable is a simple zip tie, which can be inserted into an opening at one end of the sleeve to ensure the wires do not get pulled from the bundle. This system allows you to bypass the need for excessive amounts of tape and the hassle of cleaning up the residue it leaves behind.

Simply place your cables and wire in the Quick-Feed®, zip it together, and cinch the zip tie on the opposite end to secure the cables and wires as you pull them through your system.

For added protection, we also offer an optional conduit sleeve that can be permanently sewn into the jacketing to help protect the fragile connector ends in your bundle, especially in high-traffic areas such as construction zones.

No matter how you intend to use Zippertubing’s Quick-Feed® pull-through sleeve, you’ll find it to be the perfect solution for safely pulling your cables and wires through your conduit systems.


Shrink-N-Repair® is a wrap-around heat shrink for damaged, cracked, or chafed components that need a quick repair without downtime or disconnection. Shrink-N-Repair® is unlike other heat shrink tubing because it can be wrapped lengthwise around the wire or cable. Typical heat shrink is a sleeve that requires disassembly and more resources, whereas Shrink-N-Repair® can be installed with only a heat gun and a standard pair of scissors.

Shrink-N-Repair® will repair diameters up to 0.5". We also offer Shrink-N-Repair® (Thin) which is engineered for diameters of 0.05” to 0.25”. And if you require a wrap-around heat shrink for diameters of 0.5” to 1”, we offer Shrink-N-Repair® (L), as well as Shrink-N-Repair® (XL) for diameters as large as 2”.


Shrink-N-Shield® is an EMI shielding heat-shrink tubing that is offered in 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1 shrink ratios, and can be cut to length. The flexible, flame-retardant and self-extinguishing polyolefin sleeve can withstand temperatures up to 275°F (135°C). Additionally, the jacketing has excellent abrasion, chemical, fluid and fungus resistance.

There are two standard shielding cloths available for Shrink-N-Shield®: Z-3250-CN and Z-7200-C. However, other EMI-shielding cloths are available upon request.


Snap-Grip® is a cable management solution equipped with nylon snap buttons. Snap-Grip® is available in six colors, as well as a clear option. If your applications may require color coding to indicate certain precautions, or if you are simply looking for a more colorful way to bundle wires or cables, these options are a great choice. The nylon snap buttons enable quick application. Snap-Grip® requires no tools, allowing for fast, clean installation. Because of the spacing between snaps, you can easily cut to any length required. Snap-Grip® organizes and bundles while also protecting from abrasion.

If your application requires EMI shielding, we offer Snap-Grip® (AL), or if the application requires heat shielding, we also offer Snap-Grip® (SAM-1000).


Swift-Zip® (PFR) is a smooth, flexible, flame-retardant, fungus-resistant and water-resistant cable management solution featuring a rare industry find of a continuous zipper closure. Swift-Zip® (PFR) uses a rubber-like poly(ether)urethane jacketing material, making it the perfect product for cable bundles or wiring that may need the capability to move without compromising security. At only 0.010" in thickness, the PFR jacketing is lightweight and moves effortlessly. The PFR jacketing is used in the aerospace and military industries due to its non-PVC material makeup and meeting the MIL-I-3930/21 specifications. Additionally, PFR meets the MIL-C-27072 and MIL-C-13777 specifications for electrical cable insulation, the MIL-STD-810 for fungus resistance, and the UL94 V-O standard for flame retardancy.

The strong, RF-welded zipper closure is laminated in a polyurethane film which has a resistance to water, making this solution ideal for environments that may experience exposure to fluid. Though it is not completely waterproof, any contact with liquid it does have will cause the liquid to simply bead off, keeping the look and feel of the product sleek and clean. The zipper’s teeth thread is located within, so the outside has an even and flush exterior. Depending on requirements or needs, Swift-Zip® (PFR) can be cut to any length, while still having the protection of a durable zipped closure with a removable zipper. Finished endings can be easily stapled or sewn shut.

Swift-Zip® (PFR) is ideal for wrapping around cable bundles, wiring or other applications that are in an indoor or outdoor environment where the need for a secure closure and the ability to move are present.


Z flex® is an economical, pull-thru jacketing system for flat cables. This configuration is ideal for inter-connection applications where mechanical protection is required and a sealed, flat jacket is desirable. Z flex® is supplied in reel form, easily cut to any length required, and requires no tools for installation.

A special "blue-line" nylon cloth leader inside the jacket is provided for fast, easy pull-through of the cable. Z flex® is available in many standard sizes to fit the most popular flat cable sizes ranging from 20 to 64 conductors. Custom sizes and colors are also available.


Z-3250-Tape™ is a Zippertubing-favorite solution. This EMI, RFI, and EMF shielding tape is one of the most versatile products offered. Having a corrosion resistant coating made of plated copper and nickel, Z-3250-Tape™ can be used in rugged conditions or environments. The polyester taffeta cloth is lightweight, flexible, and doesn’t flake with time. This electrical shielding tape has a conductive adhesive with a paper release liner which allows for easy and clean application. The secure adhesive closure creates a complete electrical shielding enclosure around any wire or cable.

Z-3250-Tape™ is the choice for shielding cable spices, wire connectors, or branch-outs from EMI, RFI and EMF. When installed with a 50% overlap, this product will accomplish a 98% shielding coverage, ensuring your wires and cables will not be compromised by damaging interferences.

Z-3250-Tape™ is offered in standard 1” and 2” widths, with custom thinner or wider options available upon request. Additionally, Z-3250-Tape™ is available in a five-foot roll on Amazon. The operational temperature range of Z-3250-Tape™ is -40°F to 250°F (-40°C to 121°C).


Our Z-7200 Tape™ is a lightweight and flexible EMI shielding tape. The Z-7200 Tape™ is RoHS Compliant, and durable in that it will not flake off over time. The shielding cloth is 0.005” thick and is made of a smooth, nylon rip-stop fabric that is plated with copper and a proprietary corrosion and fray resistant coating. This electrical shielding tape is also nickel-free and won’t cause skin irritation like typical nickel products can. The conductive adhesive securely fastens around wires and cables for a strong closure. When installed with a 50% overlap, Z-7200 Tape™ offers exceptional EMI, RFI, and EMF protection.

The Z-7200 Tape™ is non-magnetic, which is necessary in EMI hardening components of sensitive GPS navigation systems and earthquake monitoring equipment that can be easily upset with nearby magnetic material. The shielding attenuation levels average 60dB from 10MHz to 18GHz, providing exceptional protection against interferences that can compromise valuable component systems.

Our Z-7200 Tape™ is versatile, and can be utilized with a variety of Zippertubing® solutions to protect from EMI, RFI, and EMF. With an operational temperature range from -40°F to 302°F (-40°C to 150°C), Z-7200 Tape™ can withstand higher temperatures for a variety of environments and conditions.


Z-Block® is resistant to most fluids, making this hot-melt, heat shrink tape the ideal solution for protecting wires or cables that may be exposed to environments with water, oils, or greases. Z-Block® will create no corrosion of copper and aluminum metal substrates, and is RoHS compliant. Z-Block® is an environmental seal that will prevent any fluid from damaging or penetrating wires or cables, and is versatile enough to be used on various applications.

Z-Block® pairs perfectly with our Shrink-N-Repair® to seal and repair wires from damage, or to prevent damage from occurring. Wrapping your wires or cables with Shrink-N-Repair®, and sealing with Z-Block® creates an impossible barrier for fluids to enter, which extends the lives of your components and ensures ultimate protection.

Z-Block® is available in two different temperature ranges – Z-Block® (100) can be used on applications exposed to temperatures up to 212°F (100°C), and Z-Block® (135) can be exposed to temperatures up to 275°F (135°C).


Z-Coil™ has become an industry favorite for its quick application and economical price point. The non-expandable PET material is woven into a split sleeve that self-wraps closed. The material is resistant to abrasion, chemicals, mildew and fungus, making it the ideal solution for the most rugged environments and conditions. Z-Coil™ is halogen-free and RoHS compliant. Z-Coil™ is also self-extinguishing, so you can be confident that your components will stay secure and protected. This self-wrapping wire sleeve doesn’t require any tools for installation and can be applied quickly.

Z-Coil™ is ideal for both the aftermarket restoration and high-production automotive manufacturing industries due to its quick and easy installation around wires and cables, superior abrasion resistance and broad temperature range.


Z-Foil is a combination of a .0011" Polyester film backing bonded to our SH1 lightweight Aluminum foil shield with a pressure-sensitive adhesive closure. Extremely useful in high-frequency EMI shielding applications where an economical, lightweight, low profile shielding is needed and re-entry is not required. Z-Foil is ideal for round and flat cable shielding requirements and is available with or without a Tin/Copper drain wire. Operating temperature range is from -45° to 150°C (-40° to 302°F).


Zip-Mesh® is a flexible, easy-to-use EMI Shielding tape of two-ply, woven Tinned-Copper mesh, separated by either Aluminum or Copper polyester tape, with a self-adhesive material on one side. The material offers very low electrical resistance and is intended to compliment Zippertubing's "SH1" Foil and "SHX" Series of knitted wire mesh EMI Shields.

The tape allows joining of EMI-Shielded jacket sections at cable splices, branchouts and the transition to connector hardware. The standard tape width is 1.0 inch with other sizes available on a custom basis. This product has an operational temperature range of -40° to 175°C (-40° to 347°F).


The Zip-On® family of cable management products are as easy to install as they are to re-open. Whether you are in the field or in the office, the convenience and functionality of Zippertubing's Zip-On® solutions will more than satisfy your cable bundling and protection needs. These products are available in a variety of materials, colors, shapes and sizes.

This product line will feature one of Zippertubing's patented extruded pressure-closure tracks. Available in a wide variety of materials, the Z-Track, R-Track, EZ-Track®, or D-Track closures may be the right choice for you and your application. The outside protective jacket comes in multiple material options including PVC, Polyurethane, and Teflon extruded films. For extra ruggedness and durability, we also offer other Polymer-coated fabric materials.

Any of the Zip-On® pressure tracks are easy to install on your application thanks to the available plier and slider tools. The plier tools are great for long cable runs, while the slider tools are better for those shorter cable runs.


Zipper-Mesh cable shielding is a convenient and efficient method of providing EMI/EMP protection to harnesses and wire bundles. It is a highly-flexible shield constructed of 4-ply knitted wire mesh utilizing an internal shield overlap, an integral grounding strap, and a heavy-duty zipper closure. The zipper closure mechanism allows installation to be "tool-free", and re-entry to be very simple for cable repair or modification.

The Zipper-Mesh product line gives you the option of having no external covering allowing for easy ground termination, or you may choose from four abrasion-resistant options of protective jacket options.


Zipper-Shield™ is an EMI shielding product line that pairs a jacketing with a shielding cloth and zipper closure system. The zipper closure allows for easy installation, as well as quick access to components inside. Zippertubing® offers a variety of zipper closure systems such as the standard plastic zipper, continuous zipper, high-temperature brass zipper, and more. If your application needs protection from EMI, RFI, and EMF, but requires a solution that can be quickly installed without the need of additional tools, and may need access to wires, Zipper-Shield™ is the product line of choice.

Zipper-Shield™ is offered in a variety of standard diameter sizes with custom sizes available upon request.


The Zip-Shield® family of products have been field tested for many years and offer many different solutions specific to your needs. They provide excellent EMI/RFI shielding results as an all-in-one cable protection and bundling solution.

These products feature an exterior protective jacket that is heat sealed to a re-enterable, pressure-track closure system utilizing either our Z-Track™, D-Track-LT, EZ-Track®, or R-Track™. Zip-Shield® is available in a variety of diameters, colors, jacketing materials, and shielding options and, depending on your choice may also include a sewn-in ground wire.


Zip-Wrap® is a cable management product that features a zipper closure. Choose from many different jacketing options specific to your application.


Exterior Jacket, EMI Shielding, Wrap-Around, Adhesive Closure

Z-Shield® is a wrap around EMI-shielded jacket made of fire retardant Polyurethane film, EMI shielding cloth or foil and an adhesive closure. This combination provides excellent electromagnetic shielding of wires and cables in applications requiring outstanding flexibility, flame-retardancy and good dielectric strength. Extremely useful in electronics applications where space may require a thin and flexible shielding.

These products can be configured to fit most Round, Flat or Rectangular cable configurations and is available with or without a drain wire installed. Z-Shield® is a wrap around EMI-shielded jacket made of fire retardant Polyurethane film, EMI shielding cloth or foil and an adhesive closure. This combination provides excellent electromagnetic shielding of wires and cables in applications requiring outstanding flexibility, flame-retardancy and good dielectric strength.

Extremely useful in electronics applications where space may require a thin and flexible shielding. Z-Shield® can be configured to fit most Round, Flat or Rectangular cable configurations and is available with or without a drain wire installed.


ZT-Shield® is a combination of Zippertubing's fire-retardant Polyurethane ZT-Tape® stagger bonded to a layer of Z-3250-CN or optional custom Z-7200-C shielding fabrics with an electrically conductive adhesive backing. When spirally wrapped around electrical wires or other items using a 50% overlap technique, this product provides a finished installation with excellent electromagnetic shielding characteristics. The flame-retardant Polyurethane insulation jacket also provides good dielectric strength.

This tape eliminates the need to go back over a shielded assembly a second time to apply a protective dielectric insulator. ZT-Shield® is available in multiple widths to accommodate most wire harness diameters. This product line has an operational temperature range of -50° to 80°C (-58° to 176°F) to depending on the type of shielding that is used.


ZTT® is a single-seam, tear-drop style, heat-sealed or sewn, tubular, pull-through jacket made from a vast array of Zippertubing's custom materials. It is an inexpensive way to cover single cables, small bundles of wires, or flat ribbon cables. The ZTT® jackets typically provide a flexible, abrasion-resistant, neat, and secure encapsulation of whatever wire or cable application you may have.

No special tooling is required to install these products on your specific application. ZTT® is supplied in reel form and custom colors may be available upon special request.

Refer to Zippertubing's material data sheets for specific performance information.


ZT-Tape® is a highly versatile, flexible, fire-resistant, non-PVC electrical tape that is made of a polyurethane film. With this tape’s pressure-sensitive acrylic adhesive backing, wires will be securely sealed from corrosion or abrasion. The adhesive uses a paper release liner for quick and easy application. Though ZT-Tape® is extremely secure, if there is ever a need to remove ZT-Tape®, no residue will be left behind, allowing for a clean removal. This high-quality electrical tape is an industry favorite due to its non-PVC, polyurethane jacketing, which makes ZT-Tape® ideal for environments that prohibit PVC material. This versatile cable and wire management solution revolutionizes traditional electrical tape and offers a superior substitute that will out-shine any traditional option for insulating and securing electrical wiring.

With its excellent protection from abrasion and its chemical and fire resistance, ZT-Tape® can be used in the most rugged environment or weather conditions. ZT-Tape® is UL510 recognized, and has an operating temperate range of -65°F to 250°F (-54°C to 121°C)*. Additionally, ZT-Tape® is UV-resistant for even more application possibilities.

ZT-Tape® is the solution for applications requiring high-quality, reliable, secure cable and wire management. ZT-Tape® is the electrical tape used in automotive industries due to its high temperature range, flexibility and exceptional dielectric strength.


Z-Wrap® is an economical, lightweight wrap-around jacket system for round, flat or rectangular cables utilizing Zippertubing's type PVL-10, RPU, DVH-20 or other materials and a pressure-sensitive adhesive closure. A strip of high-strength, specially formulated Acrylic adhesive is bonded to one edge to provide a secure and flexible closure. The closure allows installation without the need for secondary tooling on assemblies that do not require re-entry and where a "pull-thru" jacket is undesirable.

The thin and highly flexible adhesive closure allows for extremely tight cable bends. The reinforced construction of Zippertubing's coated fabric materials provides good wear resistance combined with high tear strength. Z-Wrap® is ideal for discrete wires, wire harnesses, hoses, and other applications where flexibility, strength, and abrasion protection is needed. A wide variety of custom materials, sizes, and colors are available.